It should cost about the same to develop and test approach procedures regardless of the type of navigation aid used for the approach. Even though the approach path design costs are basically the same for GPS and ILS/MLS, the real cost benefits of using GPS lie in the associated user equipment costs and the expected cost benefits from reduced flight times and fuel consumption possible with the use of GPS/GAGAN. In addition, operations and maintenance costs of ground-based systems will be significantly reduced or eliminated when GPS approaches are approved for use in the Indian Airspace.

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